Industrial Revolution Revised

The Industrial Revolution was a time of war, power and working towards becoming a better civilization, economically and socially. Beginning in the 18TH century, many towns began to become enlightened by the thought of invention. Inventing new advances and expanding society where the key points within the Industrial Revolution that would lead these civilizations into suffering and decay.

Ideas of creation began to stir amongst many citizens and the need for more personal wants and desires for objects continued to grow. In Great Britain, during the mid 1700’s, the colonies worked with the slave trade to continue industrialism. The slaves were imported from Africa to North Carolina, goods were created in North Carolina and were then shipped to England, then England would sell off the goods made to gain profits. The usage of railroad transportation came into play shortly after, beginning a popular trend. Though the railroads connected people around the country and seemed gainful, it did more harm than thought. The railroads displaced many people and caused the ones living in more rural areas to move into the city. With the abundant number of people moving into the city, the growth of social classes began to become more prominently known.  There were the elites who were mostly wealthy, creating 01% of the population who owned factories. The middle class were people who were not rich, but not poor. They made income from the elites and took the vocation of managers, supervisors and other skilled labors. The last class was the working class. They had less money, were hourly paid and very poor. They worked from pay check to pay check and were unskilled and semi –skilled laborers. The working class was mostly the people who came out of the rural areas and were forced to move into the city.

Continental emulation began and the trend of industrial revolution began to spread quickly. Other countries desired to have the money, growth, power, gun and same influence upon others as Britain has. In order, America revolutionized, then the French, Haitian, and South America. Each revolution influenced the next and each brought more attention and citizens into their growing homes.

With more people moving in, there were became more demands an with such a high demand, more buildings had to be created to hold more workers who created the wants and needs for the people that then led to a creation of fog and despair. Hard labor and suffering grew over the towns and began to be a usual outlook of life in the 18TH century. To create advances and to hope for a better tomorrow was great, but at what cost? The factories that continued to cover the cities created a thick fog of smoke that continued to bring sickness and disease. The many hours of work tore the people. Maybe the thought of industrialization was not such a great idea.

Expansion has always been a leading factor in many civilizations, yet sometimes the need for expansion can go too far. By creating more buildings more black clouds of pollution were made. With people continuing to move into the cities because of its advances and the opportunities of work, less space was given and those who could afford a living area were given it while thousands who could barely survive would be moved to smaller places or to the street. Even being moved to the streets would not persuade the people to leave though. The Industrial Revolution continued to bring opportunities, the more buildings the more opportunities for work so why leave? While trying to invent and progress society brought more factories and more people, the cities were forced to grow. By expanding, they exposed more of their pollution, decay, poverty and sickness. The Industrial Revolution was a time of sorrow and decay and continued to be for the next 300 years, until a new source was found. What were the main point within the industrial revolution that stood out towards you?

By jacquelynnichele Posted in History

Industiral Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was a time of war, power and working towards becoming a better civilization, economically and socially. Beginning in the 18TH century, many towns began to become enlightened by the thought of invention. Inventing new advances and expanding society where the key points within the Industrial Revolution that would lead these civilizations into suffering and decay.
Ideas of creation began to stir amongst many citizens and the need for more personal wants and desires for objects continued to grow. With such a high demand, more buildings had to be created to hold more workers who created the wants and needs for the people that then led to a creation of fog and despair. Hard labor and suffering grew over the towns and began to be a usual outlook of life in the 18TH century. To create advances and to hope for a better tomorrow was great, but at what cost? The smoke continued to bring sickness and disease, and the many hours of work tore the people. Maybe the thought of industrialization was not such a great idea.
Expansion has always been a leading factor in many civilizations, yet sometimes the need for expansion can go too far. By creating more buildings more black clouds of pollution were made. With people continuing to move into the cities because of its advances and the opportunities of work, less space was given and those who could afford a living area were given it while thousands who could barely survive would be moved to smaller places or to the street. Even being moved to the streets would not persuade the people to leave though. The Industrial Revolution continued to bring opportunities, the more buildings the more opportunities for work so why leave?
While trying to invent and progress society brought more factories and more people, the cities were forced to grow. By expanding, they exposed more of their pollution, decay, poverty and sickness. The Industrial Revolution was a time of sorrow and decay and continued to be for the next 300 years, until a new source was found.
What were the main point within the industrial revolution that stood out towards you?

By jacquelynnichele Posted in History

W.E.B. Dubois Lecture

On Friday, January 20, 2012, after I completed all of my classes, I attended the W.EB. Dubois lecture located in the Thomas Cole Research Center auditorium. My history professor, Dr. Underwood, appointed me to this specific event the prior week. The lecture began at 12 noon, but I was unable to participate in the first hour because my Biological Science class was from 12 noon to 12:50pm. There were five to six speakers on stage when I first entered the Thomas Cole Auditorium. Unfortunately I was only able to stay long enough to hear three speakers, due to classes. When I arrived I was about to listen to the ending of Dr. Carlton E. Brown, the Clark Atlanta University president, speech on Dubois. Dr. Brown talked of the “Black Experience.” I was unable to get the full gist of what he meant, but my attendance allowed me to learn a fact of Dubois which was that he owned his own soul and that he was a simple and humble man.
After Dr. Brown spoke our universities Provost, Dr. Silver, got his chance to speak. He seemed delighted to speak of Dubois saying, “I could go on and on about Dubois.” Several main points left an impression of Dubois on me. One was, as Dr. Silver said, “[That] Dubois wanted us to focus on what he thinks, not his greatness.” Dr. Silver characterized Dubois of great stature. He was a scholar, an educator, an agitator, a provocative and a nation building man. I learned that Dubois wrote on critical issues affecting the current times and as he continued to write, his works continued to educate others of their selves. He uses metaphors and conduct to tease the audience from an intellectual stand point and I admire that. While at Clark Atlanta University Dubois wanted us to remember one certain thing, and I believe we are all in need of being reminded that, “We are not chasing numbers, we are chasing dreams.”
The last speaker I was able to listen as she reflected on her college years and Dubois was my dean, Dr. Shirley Williams-Kirksey Dean of School of Arts & Sciences. She reflected on her years at Clark Atlanta University and strongly encouraged the students to continue research. When here she said she studied his works which made her have to pause and examine herself and her role as a Negro. She began to tell us of her story, that her most influential teacher was her 7th grade teacher, Mrs. White, because she introduced her to books, opening her eyes unto a new world. During Dr. Williams-Kirksey reflection, the most interesting thing was that she was so curios of Dubois. She has read so many of his works, but still is left with so many questions. I believe her main message was that the answers that have been left are for the rising generation, encouraging us to follow in Dubois path and explore, learn and solve the mysteries others could not.
The lecture was very interesting. I would encourage if the school has another W.E.B. Dubois lecture that all students should try to attend. The one this I was displeased with was that the lecture interfered with classes. It should be held at a later time because I am sure that all the commotion of people coming in and out disturbed a few people.

By jacquelynnichele Posted in History


Our country has endured many changes politically, physically and mentally over the hundreds of years of being present. The most noticeable changes occurred after the 1500’s. Laws were instilled, the lands and the people began to grow and the situations that were to occur in short time were greater than dreamed. From the late 1700’s to 2012 many memorable changes have taken place, each bettering the United States of America and each chronologically helping one another on the path through history.
Directly following the American Revolution in 1775, a written document was drafted. This document preached of freedom from Great Britain, and King George III, stating the demand for becoming free and independent states. The people of the United States of America had a utopian thought of government in store for their developing country, along with a principle of equality and guaranteeing the unalienable rights possessed by each American; Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness. This document is known as the Declaration of Independence (1776). After many wars, conflicts and disagreements the United States of America had finally become free and independent, as proposed. Since the freeing of America, the people were able to construct a more suitable government and produce laws that came from the voices of the people with the thought of protection, stability and growth. Yearly on July 4th celebrations are held across America in appreciation for our birth given freedom. Though it is know that freedom is not earned, one is born with it and it should never have to be concealed, it is important that each American learn of where their freedom came from and why it is celebrated. Yet with so much emphasis put on being free, it seems that at a time within the United States of America, the people forgot about the struggles they went through with being held bondage as they began to degrade others who were not granted the same freedom, mostly dependant on race. All of the United States was free, except those who bore the labors and hardship, the colored people; they were to continue as before, not knowing the feeling of freedom until many years later.
The following ten years the United States of America officials worked diligently to create a document that stood for their country, giving the rules, regulations and consequences of each action. Ratified in June of 1788, this document is known as the United States of America Constitution. The Constitution gave the people a voice of favor and guidance, as well as those who wished to run in political positions. Consisting of the Preamble, one of the most notable writings within the Constitution, seven Articles and twenty-seven Amendments, each and every circumstance was taken into consideration and clearly identified within. The Amendments, which are of great importance to the people, explain the rights and duties as an American. Within the twenty-seven Amendments are three that stand out above the rest that may sometimes be looked over, Amendment Thirteen, slavery abolished, Amendment Fourteen, citizenship rights, and Amendment Fifteen, race no bar to vote. Each writing is of different concerns, but all are linked by the voice of freedom. Amendment Thirteen was ratified in 1865 and became a memorable day for all those under the oppression of others. Now the colors were free as the whites were and the United States of America were beginning to live up to their words of all created equal and free. About three years later, the Fourteenth Amendment was ratified explaining that as a citizen if one was born within the United States they are a legal citizen and receive the same privileges as all others. The breaking point of change began not only after the freedom of slaves were given, but in 1870 when the Fifteenth Amendment was ratified giving them the power of voice, a power in government, a power that was going to continue to grow, the power to vote. Though the aspect of freedom was lost with the United States of America, it was slowly but surely being found within the colored community as they believed in people being people and nothing more, regardless of any noticeable differences.
On a cool winter day in December of 1955, a sweet old lady was taken away in hand cuffs because of the refusal to move so the white passenger on the bus could sit down. Rosa Louise McCauley Parks, the first lady of civil rights and the mother of the freedom movement, was the women who rebelled against the laws that made a national statement to other colors of America. This moment in history began to alert colored people in the thought that today and the days after, this is the time we stand up and make a change. Change was not going to happen on its own; it is only caused by action. This movement inspired many to protest, rebel, and create a voice for those who were unable or afraid to speak up. Freedom was given to the colored, yet it was limited. There is no such thing as limited freedom, in reality the “freedom” given to them wasn’t freedom at all because they were still under the mercy of the whites. They didn’t receive the same privileges or resources, but that would soon change thanks to Mrs. Parks who sat and refused to stand aside.
Born in Georgia as Michael Luther King, Jr., later changing his name to Martin Luther King, Jr., he has become one of the greatest and remember nonviolent activist in history. From his many inspirational speeches to his actions made, King was beloved and highly favored in both black and some white communities. Following Parks, King picked up on the works of the NAACP and the movement for civil rights. King gained the attention of all and completed many outstanding goals, slowly but surely helping progress the movement started. The most memorable moment of Kings life was in April 1968, where he was assassinated on his hotel balcony. Hearts were touched and people were distraught at the loss of another great. The death of King is of great importance because just as he brought people together when he was alive, his death brought more than expected closer. His death was a wakeup call to all stating that the war for freedom is not an easy path to follow nor guide, but every moment plans are put into actions and moves are made you are one step closer to freedom.
January 20th, 2009 history was made. The first black president was elected into office and his name was Barack Obama. Many were in awe and disbelief, but thousands were filled with joy because a new era had come. Though there were some who opposed the thought of an African America running the United States of America, change had happened and the people spoke. This progress has showed how far African Americans have come, inspiring people and giving them hope for a better tomorrow. Obama is continuously being put down by other politicians and social media, yet he continues forth with disregard and little remarks because his main concern is this country and trying to save it from the disaster started before him. As President Barak Obama says, “Yes we can!”
Freedom is the main point of my argument, yet to know the feeling of freedom is to be truly happy. The only concern is that we are all not all happy and we are all not free; as we are being held down by particular obstacles put in place and shall never know the feeling. But with the knowledge of our history and seeing the steps taken to get to this point in life where everyone is equal, where there are minor discriminations and we’re given the honor to see history be made as Barack Obama leads America, trying to recover from previous mistakes made. The freedom we have is taken granted each day, but if we all take the time out to reflect on history, I am sure there shall be a greater appreciation within everyone. Freedom is at our finger tips, yet we clueless let it get away from us, but we must continue to fight because the war may never be over. I will not let this slow me down because I know; Freedom Is Your Right And Mine Too.

By jacquelynnichele Posted in History

Digital Nation Extra Credit

The term “digital natives” is related to the imminent generation, declaring that the new age revolves around the use of technology and the Worldwide Web. Through the videos viewed, many valid points were gestured. Today, we are able to take a step back and observe one another and notice how almost every aspect is lead by the use of technology. From networking sites, video games, and the cell phones used in our daily lives, there is not one situation you will approach and not notice the technology advancement being displayed. It is true that civilization thrives off of the technology produced and its continuing advances. Many adults and elders are concerned for the future of the youth. The youth are the next generation that are being held responsible for the continuation of life, but is seems impossible that such standards could be met due to the excessive use of the internet. The internet connects people to every possible source available and also connects those distanced to friends, family or random people whose façade bares a welcoming instinct. Being unaware of the dangers of reality and being force fed the virtual world is what is happening. Over half of those categorized as digital natives spend at least nine hours or more entwined with the virtual world, and only sparing an hour or less studying, reading or being productive. Spending an extensive time trying to master the uses of the web is becoming brain damaging. The generation, beginning from adolescent ages, are pruning the many brain cells they have and causing their selves to fall short in expectations. It is astounding that one could spend so much time and energy, and become so concentrated when using any form of technology, yet when in a learning facility the attention span is less than average. Maybe this is why there is beginning to be a miraculous increase of the use of technology in schools. There is a loss in many adolescents as they are becoming more attached to the technology, using it for pleasure rather than to better their selves. There is an even greater loss of adolescents daily to stalkers and those disguised as friendly personalities, along with the cyber bully that will not seize. While many kids are playing their “harmless” video games, some are unaware of the influence and future actions these games could bring. Technology is not bad, it is the way we handle it. If society could find a balance, there is hope that the generation depended on shall not fall and the next will not mimic their actions.

By jacquelynnichele Posted in History

Mirror, Mirror on the Wall, Let’s Reflect on my Pro’s and Flaws

Jacquelyn Jackson

November 30, 2011


     Upon entering Clark Atlanta University there were specific goals set and a vision of how I anticipated my freshman year to start and end. Always being an ‘A’ and ‘B’ student with a GPA above 3.5, I am determined to continue with my grades being higher than average and better than the last report received. As I examine my progress through the 14 weeks of being in U.S., Africa and the World (WISE) with Professor Underwood, I would personally say that I have been doing an exceptional job, progressing through the class and learning new things daily. Some people say that first semester of college was a rude awakening for them and that they will do better second semester, but I say that first semester of college was challenging, fun and very helpful. I made sure to keep up with all my homework and went to no parties, but I still found time for a social life. As long as you stay focused, study, complete your work ahead of time and take notes of everything being said in class it is possible to be prosperous. From the Cultural Analysis paper to my linking blogs, all stood out and proved that my advancement in Wise has been phenomenal, highlighting my writing progress and my flaws.

     Though we only had one major writing assignment, my Cultural Analysis on ancient China proved to be a difficult task. The most challenge part of the paper was making sure I did not seem redundant and making sure I was giving enough historical contexts to satisfy and inform the readers. Sometimes it is felt that the ancient context given is enough and that one would not want to overdo it, but I have learned that enough is never enough. To give the background information on a topic is to give every single detail known and possible to find. Though I have been told continuously to give more factual connections, it seems I have not grasped the correct concept. I am continuing to work diligently on my elaboration of subjects. The other difficult task of not sounding repetitive is starting to become more manageable. When writing anything I make sure to keep the thesaurus beside me so I can look up more scholarly words or words that mean the same thing that are said in a different way. Overall, I feel I did a satisfactory job in writing my analysis. The grade received was exceptional, though I feel I could have done better. Regardless, I know when writing a historical paper what points I need to work on and that I always need to assure that they are being tended to.

     The most recent blog, An Inside Look to the 1500’s, was not a simple task. I believe it was immense because this topic needed to be tended to with a lot of background information, which is a weakness I notice I have in history. I have elaborated as much as I could, trying to redeem myself as I introduce all civilizations I know that had major turning-points in history around the 1500’s. Hopefully my blog meets the standards listed. I believe this is not my worst piece of work, yet it is not my best, but it shows that I am trying to enhance my writing in history and I am becoming a more effective writer.

     Medea: Diary of All Mad Women is my most improved blogged. I felt a connection when writing this blog because the character of Medea had been remade countless times and her story is well known, so writing this blog was very easy. I was excited for the submission and over-joy with the comment left from Professor Underwood. This blog showed me that I can be a successful history writer. It is possible that if I evaluate the topics given and try to get a more personal understanding then I might have the answer to my struggle with history.

     In the course, I came to favor the subject of Confucianism and China. This was a topic I could relate to because of my interest in China, its history and language. Writing this blog was fairly easy. I really enjoyed writing this blog and I believe that is why with most of my other works I stayed connected with China and Confucianism. Though I did exceptionally well, I still have many flaws in my writing. One of the most noticeable issues is probably my grammar and punctuation. I tend to type fast and when I proofread my paper, I over-look the simple mistakes. I do need to gain help with punctuation and grammar because I do not want these issues to slow me down as a writer and prevent me from achieving what I should.

     Our very first blog for history, Environment and Ancient Civilizations, was a huge realization of what I was in store for. Before Wise history, I have never actually written a historical paper. Most of my history teachers were incapable of giving me the proper learning in high school, so when I turned this first blog in I knew that there was very little history included and more English, as in the writing concepts and how I went about formulating the paper. I included some historical background, but it was not enough to satisfy a history professor and there were no dates included in the paper. After my corrections for the paper, I began to grasp what I was expected of in History. 

     During the 14 weeks spent in Wise History, I have learned a lot. History was never my favorite subject and I could never grasp the historical data given in class. Yet, once enrolled into Professor Underwood’s class I admit that I have a new interest in history. She is a very profound teacher and has brightened my affection toward learning history. It has become a more understandable topic and I am excited for my next semester in Wise History. Though I know I have flaws with my writing, such as grammar, punctuation, not giving enough historical context and redundancy, I can tell from each writing that I have continued to progress and learned new facets of history.


By jacquelynnichele Posted in History

What’s Really Going On: An Inside Look to the 1500’s

     The 1500’s brought many prosperous and doubtful days upon the Earth. This firsthand look gives insight to the life and times of civilizations across the world. Starting in ancient Egypt, one of the earliest civilizations known; in Egypt, before the 15th century, these once glorious people suffered harsh turmoil. They were thrown into a period called The Great Humiliation, in 1750 BCE. This period was a great disgrace and had Egypt fall to their feet in defeat as they were taken over by the Hykso’s. As the 1500’s drew near, Egypt began to grow strong and pull together, securing the uprising of Thebes in 1550’s BCE. As the up rise of Thebes came, so did the formation of the New Kingdom in 1530-1150 BCE. King Amhose I was the current ruler and commenced the liberation of Egypt, expanding this once sunken society into the borders of Palestine. He also expanded Egypt into Syria/Mesopotamia and south of Nubia. He pushed for a stronger trading system between Punt and Arabia, exchanging ivory, slaves, jewelry, weapons and tools. During Amhose I starting reign in the early 1500’s he was classified as a great leader who gave Egypt the drive needed to get back upon its feet, launching massive buildingprograms to honor the Gods and magnify their accomplishments. Egypt’s control over Nubia was a great stepping stone for these mighty people. As they gained control over Kush and Napata, the people being enslaved were forced to work in the goldmines as state punishment. After Amhose I reign, Queen Hatshepsut came into leadership. She controlled parts deep into Nubia creating an everlasting temple in Nubia called the Temple to Horus. Many of her records have been lost since her passing.

     Overseas, eastward of Egypt, the lustrous country of China experienced their share of ups and downward spirals that put them into their current state.   During the rise of the Shang Dynasty (1766-1122 BCE), founded by Tang the Successful, many influences were developed such as the monotheistic religion of Zoroastrianism (1500 BCE-500 BCE). Zoroastrianism was founded by Zoroaster (Zarathustra). This religious belief was described as a dual nature of man having two Gods, Ahuramazda (the good God) and Anry Mainya (the bad God), fighting for humanity. This taught the men and women to possess their free ill and how they were expected to disengage in any sinful acts and abide by the divine laws. This religion is similar to the current belief of Christianity where there is God (upper Earth or heaven) and the devil (lower Earth or Hell). Also during this advancement with the Shang came the rapid movement of the capital, exhausting the tin mines and the Yin Dynasty, which produced 11 large tombs of most noticeable kings.

     Just as all these life changing events occurred, in The Kingdom of Gold and Salt, the West African empires, history was being made and the beginning of a new era commenced. A noble man given the name a “Good Muslim” was on a life changing journey. Askia Muhammad Toure, thriving from 1493-1528, began bringing stability and giving money to those in need. He was known for being the first to make a glorious venture to the Hajj in 1496.  While things seemed to experience rapid growth within the Western Empires the people were not prepared for the shock in store. The empire began a rapid decline as they were brought down by Northern invasions in 1591, also being taken apart by internal rebellions.

     So much history has been made during the early and late 1500’s, producing many remembered leaders and many historical places. These influences are what make civilization as it is currently around the world. The 1500’s brought many up and downward spirals for the people of that time, but the still found a stepping stool and prospered over life’s difficulties.

By jacquelynnichele Posted in History

The Dark Ages

The Dark Ages was considered a period opposite of what the European culture had usually experienced. The Europeans once possessed great wealth and prosperity where all things were good and filled with plentiful light and were named for one of the most powerful countries to stand upon a pedestal to others. Yet, all the glory did not last as they intended. They were set into a time of cultural and economic deterioration. Beginning around the time of 700 CE, ending many years later in 1300 CE Europe would be faced with continuous hardships.

August 24th, 410 AD marks the beginning of a fatal decline in Europe. The Roman Empire begins to fall in destruction. The Visigoth Warriors invaded Rome swiftly, waging war for three long, lethal days. This was marked as the first time in 800 years that the Roman Empire was conquered. What made the invasion even more difficult to only concentrate on were the facts that during a time when Rome needed its entire people to gather together, instead they began withdrawing apart. Slaves began to rise and fight back, seeing this as their only opportunity with hopes of enslaves the people they once called masters.

Alaric I, born c. 370, had became known for being one of the great leaders of the Visigoths and for bringing amongst the affliction Rome were to suffer, but before all of this commenced, Alaric I was a mighty warrior who fought alongside with the Roman Empire. He drew his men to aid the Romans in many battles, but his lack of recognition displeased Alaric I. He left the army he once fought for and was elected as the new leader of the Visigoths in 395 AD. Alaric I and his troops went to many different parts of Rome, bringing calamity to its people by holding their food supply and other needs, killing many Romans inside of the community. Finally, in 410 AD on August 24th, Alaric I and his troops sacked the Roman Empire from the inside.

It seemed that Rome could not get any worse than what has happened, but the people were in for so much more turmoil. Rome had already begun a slow decline because of the Emperors obsession with wealth and the raise of taxes. Now, the power and glory this once enlightened empire was known for did not exist. Cannibalism came into play and friends became enemies. Violence commenced for the next 7centuries. There was not an emperor to guide the community and sewages began to back up. An unknown plague, given the name the Bubonic Plague, had swept over the Roman Empire killing millions of people. There were numerous amounts of deaths, and with no food came no place to live which resulted in the only thing the Roman people could do, tear down precious monuments that held the glory of Rome and use it as their own personals. The people fret as they all knew, life was better in the past. Their enormous trading system, their educational facilities were all extinguished. The people lived in gloom and in fear. This part of history would redefine Europe.

Though all seemed lost within the walls of Rome, there were people who sought to bring their once glorious civilization back upon its feet. There were many monks and missionaries that drew the attention of the Roman people. They preached of a new, eternal emperor, Jesus Christ. Constantine, the current emperor of the fallen Rome, was enlightened by this eternal emperor and wanted to know more of him. It seemed that Jesus Christ and the practice of Christianity was the only common ground that began to once again draw the people together. 5 centuries after the death of Jesus Christ, Constantine proclaimed, in 313 AD, Christianity as the main religion of Rome. Though not all people were too favorable to this new religion, as the emperor bowed down to the almighty Jesus Christ the people followed and did the same.

Christianity began to rapidly spread and take liking to other countries, communities and emperors. Clovis I, King of the Franks reigning from 509-511, saw Christianity as an outlet to gain more control over the people and other lands. Christianity was supposed to be the source of righteousness, but Clovis I used this religion as a weapon. The people, instead of thinking of this religion as a safe haven, began to fear Christianity. With this remarkable power Clovis I held, it was used to conquer villages, making an even more invincible army. Clovis I was mad with power and did not plan on having anyone succeed him as he began to murder relatives close to him. He was seen more as a dictator that an actual leader, putting the citizens and others through near death experiences. Ordeals had to be done to sort out those who were not loyal to him. One would have to go through the process of placing their hand in boiling hot water to get the pebble located at the bottle. Your hand would be wrapped and three days later, if after being unwrapped, if your hand healed well then you were innocent of any actions, but if your hand healed badly then you were a guilty man. Another method would be to through a person into a river. If you sunk you were innocent and they would come to get you out of the water, but if you floated you were guilty. Barbaric methods, but they were commenced with. In 511 AD, Clovis I died of an unknown cause. Though it seems Clovis I only commenced unpleasant acts, he did reunite all of France to become the Franks.

In 530 AD the emperor of Rome struck back. Redefining Rome in the 3rd century, Rome began to separate into two, the west and east. Though this was thought as a resolution to Rome’s troubles, the separation was not well thought out. Though Rome was a strong civilization, separated it became weak. The west was not as strong as the east was by its self, causing the west empire of Rome to fall in destruction.

Justinian, thriving during 527 AD, a military man, had visions of reuniting the empire. To unsure his plans would go through, he needed an army and he needed money. Though his methods in mind were pure, his tactics were evil. He used trickery to raise funds for his military. Justinian lied, cheated and forged stuff. He got away with most of the stuff done, but in 532 AD a revolt raised against him. He planned on fleeing the lands on a boat with his loyal men and wife, but Theodora, his wife insisted on not fleeing. Theodora met Justinian at her work place. She worked as a dancer, better known as cortisone. She was a beautiful woman and used her sex to gain money. The instant Justinian saw her, he knew she had to be his and he went on to marry her. She was seen as an equal share holder to Justinian. Justinian, a mighty ruler, instead of leading followed behind his wife and stayed. With him not fleeing saved him a vast amount of wealth and he was able to overcome the revolts and conquer over the people.

The Dark Ages brought a great downfall to many empires but also began to shed light. The many years of darkness was a rude awakening to the people of Rome, but now they are able to look back upon the situation as a lesson learned and help with redefining the future of Rome.

By jacquelynnichele Posted in History

Ancient China: It Takes Structure to Uphold a Community

Jacquelyn N. Jackson

November 11, 2011

CHIS 201 Wise: USA, Africa and the World I

Professor Underwood

Cultural Analysis

Ancient China

Ancient China: It Takes Structure to Uphold a Community

     From the beginning of 600 B.C.E to 300 B.C.E, China was on the path of destruction and well on its way to recreation. It was between these approximate times periods admirable philosophers were in the mist of conceiving principles that would fabricate China into its present form. With such chaos being conveyed, there were only few who went amongst the people in hope for a resolution to reconcile the Chinese world. Amongst those who sought to guide their civilization to the image of a utopia was a widely known philosopher named Confucius. He thrived from ca. 551 B.C.E to ca. 479 B.C.E. From his time, Confucius gained many followers who were enlightened by his teachings. Confucius stressed that he was not attempting to assume government position, nor become a leader; he was simply a philosopher who had higher ambitions of helping rebuild his fallen lands. All hope had seemed to be lost during the reign of the Warring Era, resulting in many deaths, poverty and taxation. As the Warring Era began to reach its closure, the solution of the problem seemed to end with Confucianism. Confucianism has continued to thrive in ancient China creating many impressionable marks through the principles preached with value. Confucianism was described as a philosophy that held together traditional aspects, highlighting the facts of history and keeping customs intact with ancient China, mainly through the reinforcement of structure.

     Confucianism emerged during the period of the Warring States Era when the Shang dynasty was in power. This philosophy concentrates on the importance of respect, structure, the Mandate from Heaven, the government ruling without an iron fist, or trying to force upon unneeded situations, and emphasized the importance of knowing history. “Confucius was concerned more with the cultivation of social harmony than with the machinations of power.”[1] Confucianism proclaimed that the unlawful leadership is the reason behind the beginning of the Warring States. Believing in the Mandate, with no questions asked and pulling together to become more stern and strong with a conservative outlook was the solution Confucianism preached. Yet, this illustrious philosophy was not the only reform created as a resolution. Legalism, a stricter form of power, went against Confucianism and ultimately won over as the abiding law of China. Though Legalism was the key principle that China’s evolving civilization abided by Confucianism continues to flourish through China’s civilization bringing about the thought of this practice being a more favorable project of reconstruction within the civilization.

     The principle Confucius held highly with the thought that will help insure China’s recreation was structure. Structure played a key role in many aspects of life. Whether in or a household or within the community, the pyramid insisted was set as a guiding tool for success. Inside the house, a husband would tend to his deeds as in working and providing for the family. He would go amongst civilization trying to make an honest living and create a title for him and his family. The woman would tend to her husband and the children, nurturing her family and making sure everyone is tended to with a hot meal every day, clean clothes, proper grooming and always being welcomed to a clean home. The children would obey and respect mother and father and as a whole, the family would honor elders and those wiser. “Ministers will serve their lords with benevolence and justice; sons will serve their fathers with benevolence and justice; younger brothers will serve their elder brothers with benevolence and justice; so that ruler and minister, father and son, elder and younger brother will expel thoughts of profit and harbor benevolence and justice and draw close together.” [2] With this method in place it was thought that no havoc would commence and everyone would stay in their rightful occupation.

     Outside of the household, the rules of structure were still expected to be exemplified through each citizen. The most important people whom were held upon a pedestal were China’s elders and those who were described as enlightened during Confucianism’s reign. The people respected their elders and cherished their presence during and after life. They were here long before those younger than them and have gained a vast amount of wisdom and have grown as a person. These highly respected citizens were people who the Chinese civilization looked up to for guidance and lessons on life. “The Master said, at fifteen I set my mind on learning; by thirty I had found my footing; at forty I was free of perplexities; by fifty I understood the will of Heaven; by sixty I learned to give ear to others; by seventy I could follow my hearts desires without overstepping the line.”[3] The elders were respected by all, wealthy and poor. After the elders, the structure of society went from the gentry to the peasants to the merchants.  If the people were unhappy with their place in the society, it was their task to bring forth their selves and family to the position they wished to be known for.

     Containing social stratification (structure) kept every simple and complex task tended to. Whether it was being a simple farmer who grew the crops that went upon each plate for daily meals or a warrior for the Emperor who received medals of honor, each task looked upon was seen as mediocre or of great importance, but behind the façade the task are life changing. Each person’s work was useful and kept balance in the Chinese civilization. If everyone was seen as equals, the world could possibly become corrupt from the disagreement of class order. No-one ever chooses where they are settled at in life, but there are chances for each individual to make a difference and give their selves the proper title insisted, though a title is only a name given and does not have a true definition of self character. “A virtuous plebian who cultivates his qualities can be a gentleman, while a shameless son of a king is only a small man.”[4]

     In summation, during the warring states in China, 600 B.C.E to 300 B.C.E, the practice of Confucianism brought together the Chinese civilization with the teachings of orderly structure/social stratification within the community and family implementing unity. These actions not only made a great influence upon China, making them stronger than once before and sure of not repeating acts of the Warring States Era, but also left an even greater impression across other countries. Since the birth of Confucianism, this luxurious teaching method has expanded all over the world, receiving many followers’ that seek to continue Confucius legacy. Many signs of Confucianism can be seen throughout daily lives. Since Confucius death, many monuments have been and continue to become established in his honor. “Today there are many temples that were built to honor Confucius. The temples built to Confucius are not organized places were groups gather to worship, but a public edifice designed for annual ceremonies.”[5]



Clark Atlanta University History Department.  The United States, Africa, and the World: A

History Reader: The Analects of Confucius. Littleton, MA: Tapestry Press, Ltd, 2011-2012.

“Confucianism.” Crystal Links.

 (accessed October 8, 2011).

Kissinger, Henry. On China. New York: The Penguin Press, 2011.

Liu, Henry C K. “The Abduction of Modernity; Part 3: Rule of Law vs. Confucianism.”

Asian Times Online, July 24, 2003.

Murlowski, Ashlynn “2aimb”. Confucius: Actions and Legacies. Youtube, 08:07.

March 28, 2009.

Taylor, Rodney L., and Howard Y.F. Choy. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Confucianism, 1st

ed., s.v. “Hundred Days of Reform.” 1 vol. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc., 2005.

Upshur, Jiu-Hwa L., Janice J. Terry, James P. Holoka, George H. Cassar, and Richard D. Goff.

            World History: Fifth Edition, Advantage Edition. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, 2012.

Yan, Xuetong. Ancient Chinese Thought, Modern Chinese Power. New Jersey: Princeton

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[1]Henry Kissingger, On China (New York: The Penguin Press, 2011), 13.

[2]Yan Xuetong, Ancient Chinese Thought, Modern Chinese Power (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2011), 177.

[3] Clark Atlanta University History Department, The United States, Africa, and the World: A History Reader: The Analects of Confucius (Littleton, MA: Tapestry Press, Ltd, 2011-2012), 15.

[4] “Confucianism,” Crystal Links, (accessed October 8, 2011).

[5]Ashlynn Murlowski,  Confucius: Actions and Legacies, Youtube, 08:07, Mar  28, 2009, .

By jacquelynnichele Posted in History

Dancartistry: Live. Laugh. Dance

Dancartistry is a combination of dance and art. These combinations exist with one another because dancing with your body is the most complex form of art that can tell stories, draw pictures into the mind and astonish viewers. This humbling religion spread from Paris, France by the prophet Alvin Ailey, a young dancer naive of his talents and true purpose in life. He was lead by the four Gods of Dancartistry, La Rhythme, La Mouvement, La Pose and La Force. In English, the names translated to Rhythm, movement, Pose and Strength. Ailey was then sent across the lands of the world as the voices of the Gods.
Throughout Ailey’s time of honoring the Gods by achieving their deeds, he wrote down a compilation of skills and technique derived from the Gods, including the origin of this lustrous religion and the guiding tenets and entitled the book Dancing in the Wings. This book gave the people all the answers of the curious religion and helped each converter go through a process of unification and transformation.
Though social stratification did not enact as huge of a part in Dancartistry, it was still important to know where a person resided in this religious world. No other came before the Gods and no other came before the prophet. The skills possessed put the people into their selected category, but it was never permanent.
A yearly Showcase would be held at the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater, the holy grounds and main place of worship in honor of the prophet and the Gods and to attempt to gain more followers. This celebration happened every November 29-December 1. Other highlights in Dancartistry include the celebration of National Dance Day and National Dance Week. These selective holidays gave the world a chance to be free and dance, let their body be in control by the Gods and let their souls be overwhelmed with the lust to dance.
Though Dancartistry seems as a free religion where no laws abide, eleven tenets were established by the prophet by word of the Gods to ensure that Dancartistry was not to be taken as a joke. Consequences of overbearing workouts followed who so ever did not abide by the commanding laws:
Dancartistry is a wonderful religion filled with a passion for dance and works its way across the country in search of others who are willing to convert. This religion has been global for many years and can be seen throughout many households for different reasons. Even if you are not interested in Dancartistry then you should just dance when ever is most convenient. You will soon find the power of dance to be inevitable. There are thousands of converters every day, will you be one of them?

By jacquelynnichele Posted in History